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Preface: Simply C++

Welcome to C++! This book, the fifth in our new Simply series, was a joy to create. The book focuses on core concepts and features of C++ while keeping the discussions as simple as possible.


To achieve these goals, we present the core concepts of leading-edge computing technologies using the tutorial-based, Application-Driven approach, combined with the Deitel  signature Live-Code approach of teaching programming using complete, real-world

 applications. We merged the notion of a lab manual with that of a conventional textbook, creating a book that works well in a traditional classroom setting or with students sitting at computers and building each example application as they read the tutorials.

As students work through the tutorials, they learn about C++ and its fundamental features, control statements, functions, file processing, classes, pointers, the C++ Standard Template Library and more. At the end of most sections, we provide self-review questions with answers so that students receive immediate feedback on their understanding of the material.

Features in Simply C++


This book is loaded with pedagogic features, including:

n Application-Driven Tutorial Approach. Each tutorial uses a contemporary, real-world application to teach programming concepts. The examples and exercises are up-to-the-minute with popular applications, such as wage calculating, game playing, investing, and ticket ordering. Most examples have a business focus. At the beginning of each tutorial, students test-drive the completed application so they can see how it works. Then, they build the application by following step-by-step instructions. The book concentrates on the principles of good software design and stresses program clarity.

n Live-Code Approach. This book contains many Live-Code examples. Each tutorial ends with the complete, working application code and the students can run the application that they just created. We call this method of teaching and writing the Live-Code Approach. We feel that this approach is more effective than presenting only code snippets out of the context of a complete application.

n Real-World Technologies. This text incorporates todays technologies to develop useful applications. For example, we use the Unified Modeling Language  (UML) to replace flowchartsan older standard. The UML has become the preferred graphical modeling language for designing object-oriented applications. We use the UML to show the flow of control for several applications, so students gain practice reading the type of diagrams that are used in industry.

n Full-Color Presentation. This book is in full color so that students can see sample outputs as they might appear on a computer monitor. Also, we syntax color the C++ code, similar to the way C++ integrated development environments (IDEs) color the code in their editor windows. This way, students can match what they see in the book with what they see on their screens. Our syntax-coloring conventions are as follows:

   comments appear in green
   keywords appear in dark blue
   literal values and constants appear in light blue
   class, function and variable names and text appear in black
   errors appear in red

n Object-Oriented Programming. Object-oriented programming is the most widely employed technique for developing robust, reusable software, and C++ offers advanced object-oriented programming features. This book introduces students to defining classes and using objects, and lays a solid foundation for future programming courses.

n Debugging. A debugger is a software program that allows you to analyze the behavior of your applications to locate logic errors. At the ends of several tutorials, we provide Using the Debugger sections in which you will learn to detect and remove logic errors by using the Visual Studio .NET debugger. Appendix A provides instructions for using the GNU debugger (GDB).

Notes to the Instructor


Focus of the Book

Our goal was clear: Produce a C++ textbook for introductory-level courses in computer programming for students with little or no programming experience. This book teaches computer programming principles and the C++ language, including input/output, data types, variables, pseudocode, algorithms, control statements, operators, functions, arrays, strings, classes, objects, inheritance, polymorphism, pointers, references, file processing, exceptions, templates, operator overloading and more. After mastering the material, students will be able to program in C++ and to employ its cross-platform capabilities. Note that this book is based on ANSI/ISO standard C++. All of the programs in the book will run on any ANSI/ISO C++ compliant compiler.

Lab Setup

Before you can compile and run the applications in this book, Microsofts Visual C++ .NET, or an appropriate C++ development tool, must be installed. We discuss installing MS VC++ .NET in the Before You Begin section that follows this Preface. For computer labs in which students are not allowed to install software, instructors and system administrators must ensure that appropriate C++ software is installed on the lab computers in advance of the course.

Note Regarding the Platform We Used to Develop the Book

We assume that students are using Windows platform computers (Windows 2000 or Windows XP, in particular), so all directory names, instructions and sample screen captures appear in Windows format. However, the instructions and concepts presented work well on most computer platforms on which ANSI/ISO Standard C++ compilers are available, such as Linux and UNIX. [Note: All windows that show source code were created in VC++ .NET.   Copyright 19982002 Microsoft Corporation, All rights reserved. Used by permission.] If you have questions about using the VC++ .NET software, please refer to the documentation that comes with VC++ .NET or read our Dive Into  Series publications, which are available on our Web site with the Simply C++ resources at The free Dive-Into  Series publications help students and instructors familiarize themselves with various C++ development tools. These publications include: Dive-Into  Microsoft Visual C++  .NET, Dive-Into  GNU C++ on Linux, Dive-Into  GNU C++ with CygWin on Windows, Dive-Into  Microsoft Visual C++  6 and Dive-Into  Borland C++ 5.5.


Each tutorial begins with objectives that inform students of what to expect and gives them an opportunity, after reading the tutorial, to determine whether they have met the intended goals.


The tutorial outline enables students to approach the material in top-down fashion. Along with the tutorial objectives, the outline helps students anticipate future topics and set a comfortable and effective learning pace.

Example Applications (with Outputs)

We present C++ features in the context of complete, working C++ applications. We call this our Live-Code approach. All examples are available on the CD that accompanies the book or as downloads from our Web site,


An abundance of charts, line drawings and application outputs are included. The discussion of control statements, for example, is supported by carefully drawn UML activity diagrams. [Note: We do not teach UML diagramming as a program-development tool, but we do use UML diagrams to explain the precise operation of many of C++s control statements.]

Programming Tips

Hundreds of programming tips help students focus on important aspects of application development. These tips and practices represent the best the authors have gleaned from a combined seven decades of programming and teaching experience.


Good Programming Practices highlight techniques that help students write applications that are clear, understandable and maintainable.

Students learning a languageespecially in their first programming coursefrequently make errors. Pointing out these Common Programming Errors in the text reduces the likelihood that students will make the same mistakes.

These tips describe aspects of C++ that prevent errors from getting into applications in the first place, which simplifies the testing and debugging process.


Teaching students to write clear and understandable applications is the most important goal for a first programming course. But students want to write applications that run the fastest, use the least memory, require the smallest number of keystrokes, etc. Performance Tips highlight opportunities for improving application performance.

The Portability Tips provide insights into how C++ achieves its high degree of portability among different platforms.


The Software Design Tips highlight architectural and design issues that affect the construction of object-oriented software systems.

Skills Summary

Each tutorial includes a bullet-list-style summary of the new programming concepts presented. This reinforces key actions taken to build the tutorials application.

544 Key Terms

Each tutorial includes a list of important terms defined in the tutorial. These terms also appear in the index and in a book-wide glossary, so the student can locate the terms and their definitions quickly.

192 Self-Review Questions and Answers

Self-review multiple-choice questions and answers are included after most sections to build students confidence with the material and prepare them for the regular exercises. Students should be encouraged to attempt all the self-review exercises and check their answers.

358 Exercises (Solutions in Instructors Manual)

Each tutorial concludes with exercises. Typical exercises include 10 multiple-choice questions, a What does this code do? exercise, a Whats wrong with this code? exercise, three regular programming exercises and a programming challenge. [Note: In the What does this code do? and Whats wrong with this code? exercises, we show only portions of the code in the text, but the instructors manual contains full applications with outputs.] Several tutorials also include exercises that require students to use the C++ debugger to locate and fix logic errors in applications. Throughout the book, we make the assumption that the reader tries, or at least carefully reads, all of the exercises.

The questions involve simple recall of important terminology and concepts, writing individual C++ statements, writing small portions of C++ applications and writing complete C++ functions, classes and applications. Every programming exercise uses a step-by-step methodology to guide the student. The solutions for the exercises are available only to instructors through their Prentice-Hall representatives. [NOTE: Please do not write to us requesting the instructor’s manual. Distribution of this publication is strictly limited to instructors teaching from the book. Instructors may obtain the solutions manual only from their regular Prentice Hall representatives. We regret that we cannot provide the solutions to professionals.]

C++ Standard Library Reference Summaries

Each tutorial includes a summary of the classes, functions and other C++ Standard Library objects introduced in the tutorial. The summary includes a description of each library.


The extensive index includes important terms both under main headings and as separate entries so that students can search for any term or concept by keyword. The code examples and the exercises are also included in the index. Every C++ source code application in the book is indexed under both the appropriate application and as a subindex item under applications. We have also double-indexed features such as functions and classes. This makes it easier to find examples using particular features.

Simply C++ Ancillary Package

Simply C++ is accompanied by extensive ancillary materials for instructors, including the following:

n Instructors Resource CD (IRCD) which contains the

n Instructors Manual with solutions to the end-of-tutorial exercises

n Test-Item File of multiple-choice questions (approximately two per tutorial section)

n Customizable PowerPoint  Slides containing all the code and figures in the text, and bulleted items that summarize the key points in the text

Companion Web Site

The Companion Web Site offers a Syllabus Manager, which helps instructors plan courses interactively and create online syllabi. Students also benefit from the functionality of the Companion Web Site. Book-specific resources for students include:

n Example source code

n Reference materials from the book appendices

n Tutorial objectives

n Tutorial outlines

n Programming tips from each tutorial

To access Simply C++s Companion Web Site, visit­.


Todays students have increasing demands on their time and money, and they need to be resourceful about how, when and where they study. Our publisher, Prentice Hall, is owned by Pearson Education, which has responded to that need by creating PearsonChoices to allow faculty and students to choose from a variety of textbook formats and prices.

SafariX WebBooks

SafariX Textbooks Online is a new service for college students looking to save money on required or recommended textbooks for academic courses. This secure WebBooks platform creates a new option in the higher education market; an additional choice for students alongside conventional textbooks and online learning services. By eliminating the costs relating to printing, manufacturing and retail distribution for the physical textbook, Pearson provides students with a WebBook at 50% of the cost of its conventional print equivalent.

SafariX WebBooks are viewed through a Web browser connected to the Internet. No special plug-ins are required and no applications need to be downloaded. Students simply log in, purchase access and begin studying. With SafariX Textbooks Online students will be able to search the text, make notes online, print out reading assignments that incorporate their professors lecture notes and bookmark important passages they want to review later. They can navigate easily to a page number, reading assignment, or chapter. The Table of Contents of each WebBook appears in the left hand column alongside the text.

We are pleased to offer students the Simply C++ SafariX WebBook available for January 2005 classes. Visit for more information. Other Deitel titles available as SafariX WebBooks include Small Java How to Program, 6/e and Java How to Program, 6/e. Visit for more information.

Coming Soon: OneKey Powered by Course Compass, BlackBoard  and WebCT  Course Management Systems

OneKey is Prentice Halls exclusive new resource that gives instructors and students access to the best online teaching and learning tools through one convenient Web site. OneKey enables instructors to prepare their courses effectively, present their courses more dramatically and assess students easily. An abundance of searchable presentation material together with practice activities and test questionsall organized by chapter or topichelps to simplify course preparation.

Selected content from the Deitels introductory programming language Simply Series, including Simply C++, will soon be available to integrate into various popular course management systems, including CourseCompass, Blackboard and WebCT. Course management systems help faculty create, manage and use sophisticated Web-based educational tools and programs. Instructors can save hours of inputting data by using Deitel course management systems content. Blackboard, CourseCompass and WebCT offer:

n Features to create and customize an online course, such as areas to post course information (e.g., policies, syllabi, announcements, assignments, grades, performance evaluations and progress tracking), class and student management tools, a gradebook, reporting tools, page tracking, a calendar and assignments.

n Communication tools to help create and maintain interpersonal relationships between students and instructors, including chat rooms, whiteboards, document sharing, bulletin boards and private e-mail.

n Flexible testing tools that allow an instructor to create online quizzes and tests from questions directly linked to the text, and that grade and track results effectively. All tests can be inputted into the gradebook for efficient course management. WebCT also allows instructors to administer timed online quizzes.

n Support materials for instructors are available in print and online formats.

In addition to the types of tools found in Blackboard and WebCT, CourseCompass from Prentice Hall includes:

n CourseCompass course home page, which makes the course as easy to navigate as a book. An expandable table of contents allows instructors to view course content at a glance and to link to any section.

n Hosting on Prentice Halls centralized servers, which allows course administrators to avoid separate licensing fees or server-space issues. Access to Prentice Hall technical support is available.

n How Do I online-support sections are available for users who need help personalizing course sites, including step-by-step instructions for adding PowerPoint slides, video and more.

n Instructor Quick Start Guide helps instructors create online courses using a simple, step-by-step process.

To view free online demonstrations and learn more about these Course Management Systems, which support Deitel content, visit the following Web sites:

n Blackboard: and

n WebCT: and

n CourseCompass: and



One of the great pleasures of writing a textbook is acknowledging the efforts of many people whose names may not appear on the cover, but whose hard work, cooperation, friendship and understanding were crucial to the production of the book. Many people at Deitel & Associates, Inc., devoted long hours to this project.

n Abbey Deitel, President

n Barbara Deitel, Chief Financial Officer

We would also like to thank the participants in the Deitel & Associates, Inc., College Internship Program who contributed to this book and its ancillaries: Tim Christensen, Jeffrey Peng and Eric Winokur.[1]

We are fortunate to have been able to work on this project with the talented and dedicated team of publishing professionals at Prentice Hall. We especially appreciate the extraordinary efforts of our Computer Science Editor, Kate Hargett and her boss and our mentor in publishingMarcia Horton, Editorial Director of Prentice-Halls Engineering and Computer Science Division. Tom Manshreck and Vince OBrien managed the production of the book. John Lovell served as production editor. Geoff Cassar and Carole Anson worked on the cover design and Sarah Parker handled editorial responsibilities on the books extensive ancillary package.

We wish to acknowledge the efforts of our reviewers and to thank Jennifer Capello of Prentice Hall, who managed the review process. The 21 reviewers from academia and industry adhered to a tight time schedule, these reviewers scrutinized the text and the applications, providing countless suggestions for improving the accuracy and completeness of the presentation. It is a privilege to have the guidance of such talented and busy professionals.

Simply C++ Reviewers:

Mark Andersen, Microsoft

Warren Bartlett, Florida Metropolitan University

Edward Brunjes, Miramar College

James Brzowski, University of Massachusetts at Lowell

Dharmesh Chauhan, Microsoft

Marg Chauvin, Palm Beach Community College        

Mahesh Hariharan, Microsoft

Richard Holladay, San Diego Mesa College

Ravinder Kang, Highline Community College

Don Kostuch, Independent Consultant

Kriang Lerdsuwanakij, Siemens Limited Thailand (GCC Development team)

Ami Neiman, DeVry University, Fremont       

Gavin Osborne, Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology

Tom Pennings, Borland Software Corporation

Judy Scholl, Austin Community College        

Ray Stephenson, Microsoft

William Tucker, Austin Community College   

John Varghese, UBS Warburg          

Jeff Welton, Microsoft

Ellen Williams, Atlantic Technical Center

Catherine Wyman, DeVry University, Phoenix

We would sincerely appreciate your comments, criticisms, corrections and suggestions for improving this textbook. Please address all correspondence to:

We will respond promptly.

Well, thats it for now. Welcome to the exciting world of C++ programming. We hope you enjoy this first look at C++ applications development. Good luck!

Dr. Harvey M. Deitel
Paul J. Deitel
Dave Choffnes
Christi Kelsey

About the Authors


Dr. Harvey M. Deitel, Chairman and Chief Strategy Officer of Deitel & Associates, Inc., has 43 years experience in the computing field, including extensive industry and academic experience. Dr. Deitel earned B.S. and M.S. degrees from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a Ph.D. from Boston University. He worked on the pioneering virtual-memory operating-systems projects at IBM and MIT that developed techniques now widely implemented in systems such as UNIX, Linux and Windows XP. He has 20 years of college teaching experience and served as the Chairman of the Computer Science Department at Boston College before founding Deitel & Associates, Inc., with his son, Paul J. Deitel. He is the author or co-author of several dozen books and multimedia packages. With translations published in numerous foreign languages, Dr. Deitels texts have earned international recognition. Dr. Deitel has delivered hundreds of professional seminars to major corporations, academic institutions, government organizations and various branches of the military.

Paul J. Deitel, CEO and Chief Technical Officer of Deitel & Associates, Inc., is a graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technologys Sloan School of Management, where he studied information technology. Through Deitel & Associates, Inc., he has delivered professional seminars to numerous industry and government clients and has lectured on C++ for the Boston Chapter of the Association for Computing Machinery. He and his father, Dr. Harvey M. Deitel, are the worlds best-selling Computer Science textbook authors.

David R. Choffnes is a graduate of Amherst College magna cum laude with degrees in Physics and French. During his time at Amherst, he also completed significant course work in computer science. David contributed to Simply Visual Basic .NET and co-authored Operating Systems, 3/e with the Deitels. In his spare time, he designs Web sites and develops a content management system. David is the recipient of a Cabell Fellowship at Northwestern University, where he will pursue a Ph.D. in Computer Science beginning in the Fall of 2004.

Christiann L. Kelsey, Director of Business Development at Deitel & Associates, Inc., graduated from Purdue University with a degree in management and information systems. Christi has contributed to several Deitel & Associates, Inc. publications including Wireless Internet & Mobile Business How to Program; Internet & World Wide Web How to Program, 3/e; Java How to Program, 6/e; Simply Visual Basic .NET 2003; Simply Java Programming; Simply C# and many others. Christi is also responsible for the Deitel  Buzz Online e-mail newsletter and the Deitel Dive Into  Series Corporate Training business.

About Deitel & Associates, Inc.


Deitel & Associates, Inc., is an internationally recognized corporate-training and content-creation organization specializing in computer programming languages, object technology and Internet/World Wide Web software technology education. Through its 28-year publishing partnership with Prentice Hall, Deitel & Associates, Inc. publishes leading-edge programming textbooks, professional books, interactive multimedia Cyber Classrooms and course management systems e-content.

To learn more about Deitel & Associates, Inc., its Prentice Hall publications and its worldwide Dive Into Series  Corporate Training curriculum, see the last few pages of this book or visit:

and subscribe to the free Deitel  Buzz Online e-mail newsletter at:

Individuals wishing to purchase Deitel books, Cyber Classrooms and Complete Training Courses can do so through bookstores, or online booksellers and:

Bulk orders by corporations and academic institutions should be placed directly with Prentice Hall. For ordering information, please visit:

The Deitel  Buzz Online
e-Mail Newsletter


Our free e-mail newsletter includes links to articles and resources from our published books and upcoming publications, information on future publications, product-release schedules, information on corporate training, crossword puzzles using computing terminology and more. For quick opt-in registration, visit

[1]The Deitel & Associates, Inc. College Internship Program offers a limited number of salaried positions to college students majoring in Computer Science and Information Technology. Students work at our corporate headquarters in Maynard, Massachusetts full-time in the summers and (for those attending college in the Boston area) part-time during the academic year. We also offer full-time internship positions for students interested in taking a semester off from school to gain industry experience. For more information, please contact Abbey Deitel at, visit our Web site, and subscribe to our free e-mail newsletter at

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ISBN: 0131426605
© 2005, pp. 800

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Update :: November 12, 2019